Some health measures can be undertaken only by the community as a whole; these include water source protection, proper disposal of solid waste and excreta, wastewater drainage, controlling animal rearing and market hygiene. Some of these issues have been described in earlier sections.
Individual community members play an important role in community hygiene, and have a responsibility to their neighbours and to the community to promote good health and a clean environment. For example, everyone in the village must keep their houses and compounds clean, because one dirty house can affect many conscientious neighbours and contribute to the spread
of disease. Community leaders can promote cleanliness in the home by regularly checking on village households and by using by-laws to encourage household maintenance.
Markets often represent a health hazard because foodstuffs may not be stored properly and because the markets may lack basic services, such as water supply, sanitation, solid waste disposal and drainage. Ideally, markets should have several taps to provide traders and customers with ready access to safe water for drinking and washing. Many vegetable and fruit sellers regularly sprinkle their produce with water, and it is important that they have access to clean water for this. The sanitation facilities should also be appropriate for the number of people who will visit the market, with separate facilities for men and women. Water and sanitation facilities for a market are often relatively easy to support by charging a small user fee, or by using part of the market fee to pay for such services. If people are charged a fee to use the facilities, discounts can be offered to traders who already support the facilities through their market fee.